Sometimes men face an unpleasant disease like bacterial prostatitis. In order to start treatment in time, it is important to know what signs the disease can be identified and what diagnosis and therapy will be needed.
Bacterial prostatitis is an infectious disease of the prostate. Symptoms of the disease include pain in the perineum, an increase in body temperature, poisoning of the body and other signs. Such a condition may require emergency hospital treatment as it may pose a risk to the patient’s health and life.
Forms of bacterial prostatitis
Depending on the course and symptoms, bacterial prostatitis is divided into two forms - acute and chronic.
The acute form manifests itself unexpectedly and is accompanied by various unpleasant symptoms. The acute form of bacterial prostatitis requires immediate medical attention. This pathological process is provoked by Escherichia coli, staphylococcus, enterobacteria.
Acute prostatitis can be easily diagnosed with the help of laboratory tests. Severe symptoms and clinical picture allow accurate diagnosis. Treat this form of prostatitis in a complex way with medications and physiotherapy.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis has a pathogenic pathogen that can be determined by laboratory tests and examinations. The main pathogens are gonococci, chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma. The inflammatory process can also be caused by tuberculosis bacteria or fungi of the genus Candida if the man is infected with HIV.
Types of bacterial prostatitis
Bacterial prostatitis is classified according to the type of pathogen:
- tuberculosis (Koch bacillus);
- gonorrhealis (gonococcus);
- mushrooms (different types of mushrooms);
- chlamydia (chlamydia);
- viral (herpes, human papillomavirus, influenza pathogens);
- mixed (several different infections).
Only under laboratory conditions can it be determined exactly what the pathogen was, as the symptoms are the same in everyone.
Causes and risk factors
Bacteria enter the prostate gland, causing acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate. Sexually transmitted diseases can also cause this disease. In some cases, the cause cannot be determined.
CausesBacterial prostatitis is considered:
- fecal enterococcus;
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
- staphylococci (saprophytic, gold, epidermal);
- genital mycoplasma;
- Chlamydia infection;
TOrisk factorsinfection of the prostate with the subsequent development of an inflammatory process in the form of one or another form of bacterial prostatitis:
- intraprostatic reflux (reflux of urine into the channels of the prostate during urination);
- pelvic injury;
- unprotected anal sex;
- Urinary tract infections;
- urethral catheter or intermittent bladder catheterization therein;
- transurethral diagnostic and therapeutic interventions;
- HIV AIDS;
- prostate biopsy.
Symptoms of bacterial prostatitis
In general, in the case of bacterial prostatitis, the symptoms are so pronounced that it is difficult not to pay attention to them. Signs of the disease include:
- high body temperature (usually higher in the anus than in the armpit);
- fever and chills;
- difficult and painful urination, especially at night;
- possible development of constipation due to prostate enlargement;
- pain in the lower body (waist, perineum, lower abdomen);
- general intoxication of the body;
- secretions from the urethra and blood in the semen.
Stages of bacterial prostatitis
The clinical picture of bacterial prostatitis is manifested depending on the stage of the disease and the degree of involvement of prostate tissue in the inflammatory process. Share:
- Primary or catarrhal inflammation of the prostate.It is characterized by inflammation of the prostate wall. It is entirely possible to cure it with antibiotics in 10 days.
- Secondary or follicular.It is characterized by the formation of abscesses in the glandular tissue. It is accompanied by a high fever. This form is also effectively treated with antibacterial drugs.
- Third or parenchymal.The pathological process at this stage extends to the entire organ - the prostate grows in size, swells and changes shape. If treatment is not taken in time, the tertiary stage may develop into chronic prostatitis.
Possible complications and consequences for men
The consequences and complications of bacterial prostatitis include:
- vesiculitis (inflammation of the seminal vesicles) - manifests itself in groin pain, premature ejaculation, painful erection;
- colliculitis (inflammation of the sperm tubercle) - different in different symptoms - burning and tickling of the posterior urethra, painful feelings during orgasm, blood in the sperm;
- violation of potency;
- prostate sclerosis;
- prostate cyst;
- abscess of the prostate;
- stones in the prostate gland.
Chronic pelvic pain syndrome is one of the most serious consequences of chronic prostatitis.
In the absence of complaints, asymptomatic inflammation is the mildest form. This type of prostatitis is diagnosed by the development of complications of reproductive function.
Is bacterial prostatitis dangerous for women?
Prostatitis does not occur in women, but its severe consequences are common. If a man is affected by bacterial prostatitis, it is simply irresponsible to say that a woman is not at risk: chlamydia, urea plasma, Trichomonas, mycoplasma, gonococcus, gardnerella and other infections from her partner pose a serious risk to a woman and various gynecological diseaseslead to the formation of.
Which doctor treats you?
Urologistis considered to be the principal practitioner involved in the diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions of the urogenital system.
Andrologist.Although andrology belongs to the rather young branch of medicine, practitioners in this field are gradually taking their place in the treatment of diseases of the male genitourinary system. The advantage of this doctor is its narrow focus. Unlike a urologist who treats diseases of the male and female urogenital systems, the andrologist specializes exclusively in male problems.
Diagnosis of bacterial prostatitis
If bacterial prostatitis is suspected, a number of tests are performed, including:
- scratches and tampons for infection;
- plants for plant and antibiotic susceptibility;
- a general blood test helps to detect the inflammatory process, when the number of leukocytes increases, the ESR increases;
- a spermogram that examines the reduction in the number of sperm, the violation of their mobility;
- three bottles of urine (study the inflammatory changes in the urine);
- general urine test;
- analysis of prostate secretion;
- uroflowmetry - monitoring of daily urine output.
The doctor will be able to assess the size of the prostate with a digital rectal examination. Your doctor may refer you for a transrectal ultrasound to clarify the diagnosis.
Treatment of bacterial prostatitis
As a therapy for bacterial prostatitis, medication, physiotherapy, folk remedies and, in severe cases, surgery are prescribed.
Medical treatment for prostatitis is done with the help of different groups of drugs. These can be antibiotics to neutralize the pathogen. However, these do not always help, as the prostate is characterized by poor absorption of antibiotics from the group of protected penicillins, fluoroquinolones.
The course of treatment is usually 10-14 days and must be completed unsuccessfully because if bacterial prostatitis is not treated, it will reappear. Vitamins and medications are also prescribed to strengthen the immune system.
The doctor recommends surgery for prostatitis if the patient has not achieved medication, physiotherapy, or alternative therapies.
Surgery involves the following procedures:
- Transurethral resection of the prostate.The inside of the organ is removed. Surgery is the most commonly used and best endoscopic treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
To perform this intervention, the patient performs a number of tests, including blood and urine tests. Surgery is performed under spinal anesthesia, but general anesthesia can also be used. There are no scars after surgery. Disadvantages include painful urination in the first days after the procedure.
- Laser surgery.The laser destroys diseased tissues. However, the size of the prostate decreases and the vessels are "closed" and do not bleed. The surgery is performed without incision and the postoperative period is only three days. Blood and urine tests, as well as urinary ultrasound and a prostate biopsy as prescribed by your doctor, are performed before the procedure.
This method is not effective if the prostate volume is large.
- Open prostatectomy.The operation is performed in cases where the prostate is greatly enlarged, in the presence of complications and in case of bladder damage.
The surgeon makes an incision either in the lower abdomen or between the scrotum and the anus. Part of the prostate is removed or removed completely.
Ultrasound, MRI and cytoscopy, as well as blood and urine tests and prostate-specific antigen tests are performed before surgery.
One of the benefits of surgery is the effectiveness of treating the prostate and related problems. And the disadvantages - a long postoperative recovery period (more than a month), as well as problems with erectile function.
- Transurethral incision of the prostate.The doctor does not remove the prostate tissue, he just makes an incision to relieve the pressure in the urethra, making it easier to urinate. Blood and urine tests and urinary ultrasound are performed before surgery.
Advantages of the procedure - the symptoms of prostatitis are relieved without the risk of retrograde ejaculation, long-term recovery is not necessary. Among the shortcomings - prostatitis still needs to be treated.
- Drainage of the prostate abscess.The doctor opens the abscess through the perineum or anus, cuts the skin and subcutaneous tissue, and introduces drainage into the cavity for purulent removal.
Before surgery, a proctologist is consulted and blood and urine tests are performed.
The benefits of the operation include no risk of losing sexual function. The downside is that the abscess cannot be removed completely and the bacteria can spread throughout the body.
Surgery for prostatitis in men is usually the last resort for chronic bacterial prostatitis, which involves any form of complication.
Physical methods of influencing are of great importance in the complex treatment of patients diagnosed with prostatitis. As a result of physiotherapy procedures, the following are improved:
- blood flow;
- lymphatic drainage, which contributes to the removal of degradation products of microorganisms;
- blood and lymphatic circulation, which dissolves inflammatory infiltrates;
- blood and lymph outflow, which helps reduce pelvic congestion;
- the activity of cell membranes, which promotes the penetration of active drugs into the cell.
Physiotherapy for bacterial prostatitis includes the following methods:
- Electrophoresis.It acts on the body with ions, which helps relieve inflammation and eliminate pain.
- Laser physiotherapy.The laser helps relieve perineal pain and improves blood flow to the pelvic organs. It kills bacteria and removes waste from harmful organisms.
- Magnetotherapy.By performing this procedure, the permeability of the tissues is improved and the efficiency of the drug treatment is significantly increased. In addition, with the help of magnetic therapy, hemodynamics and congestion are eliminated.
Exercise for bacterial prostatitis
Exercising chronic prostatitis contracts the muscles of the pelvic region, which guarantees a difference in intra-abdominal pressure. This promotes blood flow to the prostate. The exercise tones the nervous system, makes the adrenal glands function, and removes the residual effects of inflammatory diseases of the prostate.
You can do the following exercises at home:
- The man sits down on a rubber ball and rolls from left to right, springing slightly. It helps strengthen pelvic floor muscles and oblique.
- Kegel exercises. Tighten your buttocks as much as possible for 5-10 seconds, then relax your muscles. This exercise is performed 20-50 times.
- Lie on your back, bend your knees and support your heels on the floor. Slowly raise your pool while keeping your upper back flat on the floor. When the pool is at the top point, it should freeze for 15 seconds and then return to its original position. The number of repetitions is 10-15.
Performing a massage
To achieve the result, exercises are performed every day and supplemented with prostate massage, which can be performed independently and with the help of special massagers.
Self-massage of the prostate is performed as follows:
- Drink one liter of water an hour before the procedure to fill the bladder.
- Clean the intestines by enema based on potassium permanganate or chamomile infusion. Your feet should be rinsed.
- Wash your hands thoroughly and cut your nails short.
- You will need to put on your gloves or condoms that will be used for the massage.
- The rubber surface of the protective layer is lubricated with Vaseline, grease or baby cream.
- Lie in a comfortable position and insert your finger into the anus to a depth of 5 cm.
- On the front wall, you can feel the prostate gland and begin to stimulate with light movements from side to center.
- In hard areas the pressure gradually increases and in soft areas it decreases.
- In the final stage, the stroking movements should be performed down the middle mucosa.
- Carefully pull your finger out of the anus.
During the massage, 3-5 drops of fluid (prostate juice) should be released. Immediately after the massage, you should go to the toilet and empty your bladder.
In case of prostatitis, the use of alcohol and cigarettes should be reduced as much as possible. Doctors also recommend that you exclude from the diet:
- fatty foods, especially meat, as fat is a source of "bad" cholesterol, which disrupts blood circulation and negatively affects the prostate;
- energy and synthetic beverages;
- spicy and smoked.
It is recommended to eat cooked and steamed foods, lots of vegetables and herbs.
Pumpkin seeds.Pumpkin seeds are an old cure for prostatitis. They contain a lot of zinc that the male body needs. You need to eat 30 seeds a day before meals.
Hazelnut branches.Boil several strands of hazelnuts with leaves in water for 20 minutes, allow to cook until the broth turns reddish brown in color. A weekly course is enough for healing.
Aspen bark.The bark of the poplar tree should be collected at the very beginning of the sap flow period, before the buds bloom. It's about the second half of April. Dry the crust in the oven, take 100 g, grind and place in a half-liter container. Pour 200 g of vodka so that the crust is completely covered. Close the bottle and place in a dark place for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, filter. Take 1 teaspoon in three three-week courses with a 10-day break.
Prognosis of bacterial prostatitis
The prognosis of bacterial prostatitis depends on the stage and type of the disease. The duration of the disease also affects the prognosis - the longer the inflammation lasts, the longer it takes to treat the complications of prostatitis.
In acute prostatitis, the prognosis is favorable. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is often a recurrent form, even when conservative therapy is prescribed. With long-term treatment of the chronic form, efficacy may change.
Prevention of bacterial prostatitis is primary and secondary.
Primary prevention of prostatitis:
- healthy lifestyle;
- good nutrition;
- to exercise.
Preventive measures at home are important - performing exercises that activate the circulation of problem organs and improve muscle tone.
In addition, men should study Kegel practices. These are designed for postpartum recovery in women, but are used to train a man’s anal and rectum.
Gymnastic exercises are useful: bicycle, birch, bridge, candles. They train the pelvic floor muscles. It is recommended to perform leg swings, breath-holding exercises and a contrast shower.
Secondary prevention of prostatitis:
- drug treatment;
- regular examination by a urologist, regardless of manifestations;
- they are examined quarterly within one year of treatment and once every six months thereafter.
Rectal suppositories are used for secondary prevention. They act on the rectum. In general, these drugs have few contraindications. Furthermore, biologically active drugs are prescribed to prevent the recurrence of bacterial prostatitis.
The sooner prostatitis is detected, the easier it is to cure. Therefore, do not ignore regular doctor visits. After the diagnosis, the doctor selects the appropriate medications and prescribes a therapeutic course. If the disease progresses, taking the medication in time will quickly relieve the symptoms and help you stay active and functional.